Provided by: Erik Gebhard of ALTAVEST Worldwide Trading, Inc
Introduction.a New Way to Look at Prices
Would you like to learn about a type of commodity price chart that is more effective
than the type you are probably using now? If so, keep reading. If you are brand
new to the art/science of chart reading, don't worry, this stuff is really quite
simple to learn.
Technical Analysis.a Brief Background
Technical analysis is simply the study of prices as reflected on price charts. Technical
analysis assumes that current prices should represent all known information about
the markets. Prices not only reflect intrinsic facts, they also represent human
emotion and the pervasive mass psychology and mood of the moment. Prices are, in
the end, a function of supply and demand. However, on a moment to moment basis,
human emotions.fear, greed, panic, hysteria, elation, etc. also dramatically effect
prices. Markets may move based upon people's expectations, not necessarily facts.
A market "technician" attempts to disregard the emotional component of trading by
making his decisions based upon chart formations, assuming that prices reflect both
facts and emotion.
Standard bar charts are commonly used to convey price activity into an easily readable
chart. Usually four elements make up a bar chart, the Open, High, Low, and Close
for the trading session/time period. A price bar can represent any time frame the
user wishes, from 1 minute to 1 month. The total vertical length/height of the bar
represents the entire trading range for the period. The top of the bar represents
the highest price of the period, and the bottom of the bar represents the lowest
price of the period. The Open is represented by a small dash to the left of the
bar, and the Close for the session is a small dash to the right of the bar. Below
is a standard bar chart example.
Candlestick Charts Explained
You may be asking yourself, "If I can already use bar charts to view prices, then
why do I need another type of chart?"
The answer to this question may not seem obvious, but after going through the following
candlestick chart explanations and examples, you will surely see value in the different
perspective candlesticks bring to the table. In my opinion, they are much more visually
appealing, and convey the price information in a quicker, easier manner.
What is the History of Candlestick Charts?
Candlestick charts are on record as being the oldest type of charts used for price
prediction. They date back to the 1700's, when they were used for predicting rice
prices. In fact, during this era in Japan, Munehisa Homma become a legendary rice
trader and gained a huge fortune using candlestick analysis. He is said to have
executed over 100 consecutive winning trades!
The candlesticks themselves and the formations they shape were give colorful names
by the Japanese traders. Due in part to the military environment of the Japanese
feudal system during this era, candlestick formations developed names such as "counter
attack lines" and the "advancing three soldiers". Just as skill, strategy, and psychology
are important in battle, so too are they important elements when in the midst of
What do Candlesticks Look Like?
Candlestick charts are much more visually appealing than a standard two-dimensional
bar chart. As in a standard bar chart, there are four elements necessary to construct
a candlestick chart, the OPEN, HIGH, LOW and CLOSING price for a given time period.
Below are examples of candlesticks and a definition for each candlestick component:
- The body of the candlestick is called the real body, and represents the range
between the open and closing prices.
- A black or filled-in body represents that the close during that time period was
lower than the open, (normally considered bearish) and when the body is open or
white, that means the close was higher than the open (normally bullish).
- The thin vertical line above and/or below the real body is called the upper/lower shadow,
representing the high/low price extremes for the period.
Bar Compared to Candlestick Charts
Below is an example of the same price data conveyed in a standard bar chart and
a candlestick chart. Notice how the candlestick chart appears 3-dimensional, as
price data almost jumps out at you.
( 3a )
( 3b )
The long, dark, filled-in real bodies
represent a weak (bearish) close (
3a ), while a long open, light-colored real body
represents a strong (bullish)
close ( 3b ). It is important to note that Japanese candlestick analysts traditionally
view the open and closing prices as the most critical of the day. At a glance, notice
how much easier it is with candlesticks to determine if the closing price was higher
or lower than the opening price.
Common Candlestick Terminology
The following is a list of some individual candlestick terms. It is important to
realize that many formations occur within the context of prior candlesticks. What
follows is merely a definition of terms, not formations.
- The Black Candlestick -- when the close is lower than the open.
- The White Candlestick -- when the close is higher than the open.
- The Shaven Head -- a candlestick with no upper shadow.
- The Shaven Bottom -- a candlestick with no lower shadow.
- Spinning Tops -- candlesticks with small real bodies, and when
appearing within a sideways choppy market, they represent equilibrium between the
bulls and the bears. They can be either white or black.
- Doji Lines -- have no real body, but instead have a horizontal
line. This represents when the Open and Close are the same or very close. The length
of the shadow can vary.
Candlestick Reversal Patterns
Just as many traders look to bar charts for double tops and bottoms, head-and-shoulders,
and technical indicators for reversal signals, so too can candlestick formations
be looked upon for the same purpose. A reversal does not always mean that the current
uptrend/downtrend will reverse direction, but merely that the current direction
may end. The market may then decide to drift sideways. Candlestick reversal patterns
must be viewed within the context of prior activity to be effective. In fact, identical
candlesticks may have different meanings depending on where they occur within the
context of prior trends and formations.
- Hammer -- a candlestick with a long lower shadow and small
real body. The shadow should be at least twice the length of the real
body, and there should be no or very little upper shadow. The body
may be either black or white, but the key is that this candlestick
must occur within the context of a downtrend to be considered a hammer. The
market may be "hammering" out a bottom.
- Hanging Man -- identical in appearance to the hammer, but appears
within the context of an uptrend.
- Engulfing Patterns -- Bullish -- when a white, real body totally
covers, "engulfs" the prior day's real body. The market should be in a definable
trend, not chopping around sideways. The shadows of the prior candlestick do not
need to be engulfed.
- Bearish -- when a black, real body totally covers, "engulfs" the prior
day's real body. The market should be in a definable trend, not chopping around
sideways. The shadows of the prior candlestick do not need to be engulfed.
- Dark-Cloud Cover(bearish) -- a top reversal formation where the first
day of the pattern consists of a strong white, real body. The second day's
price opens above the top of the upper shadow of the prior candlestick, but the
close is at or near the low of the day, and well into the prior white, real body.
- Piercing Pattern (bullish) -- opposite of the dark-cloud cover.
Occurs within a downtrend. The first candlestick having a black, real body, and
the second has a long, white, real body. The white day opens sharply lower, under
the low of the prior black day. Then, prices close above the 50% point of the prior
day's black real body.
These candlestick formations consist of a small real body that gaps away from the
real body preceding it. The real body of the star should not overlap the prior real
body. The color of the star is not too important, and they can occur at either tops
or bottoms. Stars are the equivalent of gaps on standard bar charts.
Stars make up part of four separate reversal patterns:
- Morning Star -- this is a bullish bottom reversal pattern. The formation
is comprised of 3 candlesticks. The first candlestick is a tall black real body
followed by the second, a small real body, which gaps (opens), lower (a star pattern).
The third candlestick is a white real body that moves well into the first period's
black real body. This is similar to an island pattern on standard bar charts.
- Evening Star -- a bearish top reversal pattern and counterpart to
the Morning Star. Three candlesticks compose the evening star, the first being long
and white. The second forms a star, followed by the third, which has a black real
body that moves sharply into the first white candlestick.
- Doji Stars -- When a doji gaps above a real body in an uptrend, or
gaps under a real body in a falling market, that particular doji is called a doji
star. Two popular doji stars are the evening star and the morning star.
- Evening Doji Star -- a doji star in an uptrend followed by a long,
black real body that closed well into the prior white real body. If the candlestick
after the doji star is white and gapped higher, the bearishness of the doji is invalidated.
- Morning Doji Star -- a doji star in a downtrend followed by a long,
white real body that closes well into the prior black real body. If the candlestick
after the doji star is black and gapped lower, the bullishness of the doji is invalidated.
- Shooting Star -- a small real body near the lower end of the trading
range, with a long upper shadow. The color of the body is not critical. Not usually
considered a major reversal sign, only a warning.
- Inverted Hammer-- not really a star, but does look like a shooting
star. When occurring within a downtrend, may be a turning signal. Body color is
Final Thoughts and Credits
It is important to realize that this introduction is just that, an introduction
to candlestick analysis. After having read this, you will have merely scratched
the surface of the many patterns and variables that can go into candlestick analysis.
No attempt was made to provide a thorough analysis of each and every pattern. In
fact, many formations were left out as they cross the border into more complicated
analysis. For a more complete overview of candlestick analysis, it is highly recommended
that you read the book that is referred to below.
A large portion of the material in this introduction is taken from an excellent
book called Japanese Candlestick Charting Techniques: A Contemporary Guide to the
Ancient Investment Techniques of the Far East.
In some cases, sentences
were taken almost verbatim, as there was no better way to say what Mr. Steve Nison,
the author, already said. In his book, Mr. Nison, completely explains candlesticks
and their formations, but more importantly explains how to combine candlestick analysis
with traditional technical analysis.
As traders, we need as many trading tools in our arsenal, and a basic knowledge
of candlesticks provides a trader much needed ammunition. Also remember that no
matter what the trading tool, no matter how advanced or ancient, it is only effective
when put into practice properly. This is, of course, your job as the trader.
Erik L. Gebhard
ALTAVEST Worldwide Trading, Inc.